The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Women's Pikolinos, Ordino W8M8919 Ankle Boots BRANDY 3.7 MThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Dr. Martens Womens Jadon Daze Fashion BootSam Edelman Womens Jillian Mule Cliffs by White Mountain Womens Tori Closed Toe Ankle, Brown Multi Dis, Size 8.0Alfani Womens Calistah Leather Closed Toe Ankle Fashion, Camo Green, Size 8.0generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, New Balance Men's shoes M576 PUN SIZE 8.5USand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Steve Madden Womens Indya Chelsea Ankle Boots Black Leather Pull on Size 5.5 MLiu Jo Women's MCBI37935 Beige Suede Ankle BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Flowers Metal Heels Genuine Leather Slip on Super High-heels Pointed Toe European Designer Luxury Wedding shoesT-JULY Autumn Winter Women Boots Popular Ladies Genuine Leather Boots Elegant Super High Heels Mid Calf BootsASICS Women's Gel-Storm 2 Running shoesNine West Womens Yellia Patent Dress Pump I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Stuart Weitzman Women's Slidein Slide Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. SJP by Sarah Jessica Parker Women's Slip Mule), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Charles David Womens Crest Heeled Sandaland Pas De red Women's Jolie 1859 in Black Multi color Suede - Size 41 M). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Ivanka Trump Womens Tropica Suede Front Tie Pointy-Toe FlatsWomen's Pikolino, Puerto Vallarta 655052 Sandalsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Lady Classic Womens Buckle Single shoes Square High Heeled shoes with Thick Casual shoes Quality Super Elegant Wild for Women Brown BlackLoeffler Randall Womens Layla Dress PumpLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Harley-Davidson Women's Derringer Harness BootEl Naturalista Womens Aqua N5327And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Mehphisto Women's Haneta Sandal, Light TaupeVersace Jeans Women's E0HTBSG470947BLACK Black Polyester Hi Top Sneakers.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Asics Gel Cumulus 18 Women's Running shoes - SS17Finn Comfort Womens Saloniki 2557 Leather Sandals Amalfi By Rangoni Womens Galena Ballet FlatCamper Womens Damas 21923 Platform PumpThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Finn Comfort Womens Aquila 3594 Nubuck shoesGeox - Sozy Plus - D92DQG000MAC9999factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Sam Edelman Women's Patti Dress SandalVanessa Bruno Women’s 0pve01-v40413 Tote There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeOluKai Mens Moloa Kohana Slip-On (10 - Clay Clay)Bed Stu Men's Brentwood,Mocha Dirty Veg Leather,US 8 M.JANET SPORT Women's JSPO38878 Brown Suede BootsJoya Womens Cloud II SR Leather shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Lady Sandals Summer Leather Comfortable Casual Pine Cake Slope with Sandals Female Thick Waterproof Platform High Heeled shoesDOWTO Waterproof Mid High Flat Casual Lace UP Leather Winter Snow Boot for Womentherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Wolverine 1883 Men's Birch Boot).French Sole Womens Twosome Leather Closed Toe Ankle Strap, Black Suede, Size 9.5Naot Women's Almeria Ankle Bootie However,Tory Burch Miller Wedge Slingback Sandals in Dusty CypressRag & Bone Womens Calla Suede Wedges Espadrilles I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Rebecca Minkoff Women's Kastilla Lizard Print Loafer Pumps

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